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Spearfishing is a method of fishing that involves impaling the fish with a straight pointed object such as a spear, gig or harpoon. It has been deployed in artisanal fishing throughout the world for millennia. Early civilisations were familiar with the custom of spearing fish from rivers and streams using sharpened sticks.

Modern spearfishing usually involves the use of underwater swimming gear and slingshot-like elastic powered spearguns or compressed gas powered pneumatic spearguns, which launch a tethered underwater projectile to strike the target fish. Specialised techniques and equipment have been developed for various types of aquatic environments and target fish.

Spearfishing may be done using free-diving, snorkelling or scuba diving techniques, but spearfishing while using scuba equipment is illegal in some countries. The use of mechanically powered spearguns is also outlawed in some countries and jurisdictions. Spearfishing is highly selective, normally uses no bait and has no by-catch